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ChaosTheory is a striking development in physical theory that began in the 1970's in connection with weather prediction; many will remember the conclusion that a butterfly moving its wings on one side of the globe could, if conditions were right, be the cause weeks later of a hurricane on the other. The theory relates not to minute nuclear systems as Quantum Theory does, but to the common conditions in which we live and act. The weather is an example, but the scope of Chaos Theory is widening very rapidly every year, even extending to the Arts. It is of interest in the present context because it highlights the fact that the outcome of the common affairs surrounding human life is really unpredictable with certainty; we can only guess it on the basis of probability. If a butterfly's wings could set off a hurricane thousands of miles away, how could anyone predict the event before, or positively trace it back afterwards to its source? The Bible refers to such things in two ways. Thus, of one great event in history (the Exodus) it says, "Your way was in the sea, Your path in the great waters, and Your footsteps were not known" (Ps.77.19,20; cf. Luke 13.1‑5); and of man's right response to this realization, the just shall live by his faith (Habakkuk 2.4), i.e. by believing that all things are in God's hands and living accordingly (ef.Dan.6.l0ff; Matt.2.12‑16). Clearly, Chaos Theory makes nonsense of the habit of thinking that God is only in the things we can't explain (the old 'God of the gaps' fallacy); if He is concerned at any time, He is concerned at all times. Two explanations of say the storm that wrecked Jonah, the Bible's (Jonah 1.4) and one conceivably supplied by a meteorologist, are therefore not necessarily mutually exclusive; the Bible can accommodate both (cf. Exod.14.15‑21). But when He chooses God can act in ways which permit no misunderstanding; Chaos Theory then doesn't get a look‑in. The death of the firstborn (Exod.11.4‑8; 12.29,30) is a case in point, and supremely, the Resurrection of Jesus Christ (Luke 24.30‑43).
Chaos Theory incidentally predicts that the outcome of a physical event may be humanly unpredictable not merely in practice, but also in principle. For an interesting account see 'New Ideas of Chaos in Physics' by J T Houghton, Science and Christian Belief, 1 (1), 41‑51, 1989.